Green manure plants are used as natural, live fertilizers. Among the wide variety of winter green manures, the rape is especially popular.
- Description of the plant
- Agrotechnics for growing rape
- The benefits of green manure
Description of the plant
Rapeseed is a forage and melliferous crop that improves soil properties and increases yields. Belongs to the Cruciferous family. The plant reaches a height of 125-135 cm. The leaves are light green in color. They are serrated and slightly dissected, without pubescence.
The length of the leaf plate reaches 9-11 cm, and the width is no more than 8 cm. The leaves have monopodial branching. The inflorescence is collected in a brush and on one plant their number is 8-14 pcs. The flowers are yellow and small in size. The seeds are yellow-brown in color. The growing season is about 256 days. There are several varieties of rape: Turtle-dove, Veronika, Zlata, Iskra, Zolotistaya, etc.
The main advantages of planting winter green manure:
- Promotes better snowball formation over plants
- The root system helps to retain essential nutrients and does not wash out with melt water
- They create a kind of mulch that protects the ground from freezing
- Green mass protects from the spring sun and cold weather
Unlike other types of green manure, winter rape is cold-resistant and ripe. The yield of the rape is lower, but this green manure is distinguished by less demanding conditions for the quality of the soil.
Agrotechnics for growing rape
Siderat is grown without care. Sowing is carried out in early September in an ordinary way, when the entire crop has already been harvested. The seeds are deepened by 3-4 cm. Before and after sowing the seeds, the field must be rolled with a special roller. If the crops were harvested early, then the seeds are planted twice.
If the soil is dry, then before sowing green manure seeds, you need to water it. Planting should be carried out on the site where sowing of cultivated plants is planned in spring. The plant grows well in soil with a slightly acidic and neutral reaction.
The green mass begins to be removed during the period of bud formation. "Live" fertilizers should be left on the surface and not embedded in the soil. A thick layer of mulch promotes rapid overheating. In addition, the soil will be prepared for the planned planting. After harvesting the green manure, you can start planting the main crop in 20-30 days.
It is recommended to alternate green manures from year to year. Do not sow plants that belong to the same family as the planting crop. If rape was grown on the site, then it is impossible to plant beets or cabbage.
Plants that make up a group of the same family are capable of transmitting various diseases to each other. It is important not to allow seeding of seeds, otherwise weeds will grow instead of green fertilizer. Siderata do not need digging. The rape is cut using a flat cutter or cultivator. These rules and tips must be remembered when growing winter green manures.
The benefits of green manure
Can be used as a green fertilizer. Rapeseed decomposes in the soil, as a result of which it is replenished with humus and organic matter. In addition, this green manure loosens the soil, saturates it with the necessary microelements, improves its composition and increases its moisture content. Green manure in organic farming allows to restore soil fertility
In addition, the plant forms a dense herbage and does not allow weeds to grow. Siderat improves the vital activity of soil microorganisms and, after decomposition, serves as food for them.
The grass cut in spring is used for livestock feed. When planting different families of fertilizers, the beds are filled with various useful substances. The rich green mass will significantly increase the fertility of the soil. In addition, winter rape will restore the soil after erosion and reduce the number of weeds on the site.
Siderat is an excellent food for various microorganisms. As a result, bacteria and worms improve the quality of the soil. When growing winter green manures, you can significantly improve soil fertility and increase yields.
Video on when it is better to plant green manure for soil health: